The Prison State of America

By Chris Hedges


(photo credit: Shutterstock)


Prisons employ and exploit the ideal worker. Prisoners do not receive benefits or pensions. They are not paid overtime. They are forbidden to organize and strike. They must show up on time. They are not paid for sick days or granted vacations. They cannot formally complain about working conditions or safety hazards. If they are disobedient, or attempt to protest their pitiful wages, they lose their jobs and can be sent to isolation cells. The roughly 1 million prisoners who work for corporations and government industries in the American prison system are models for what the corporate state expects us all to become. And corporations have no intention of permitting prison reforms that would reduce the size of their bonded workforce. In fact, they are seeking to replicate these conditions throughout the society.

States, in the name of austerity, have stopped providing prisoners with essential items including shoes, extra blankets and even toilet paper, while starting to charge them for electricity and room and board. Most prisoners and the families that struggle to support them are chronically short of money. Prisons are company towns. Scrip, rather than money, was once paid to coal miners, and it could be used only at the company store. Prisoners are in a similar condition. When they go broke—and being broke is a frequent occurrence in prison—prisoners must take out prison loans to pay for medications, legal and medical fees and basic commissary items such as soap and deodorant. Debt peonage inside prison is as prevalent as it is outside prison.

States impose an array of fees on prisoners. For example, there is a 10 percent charge imposed by New Jersey on every commissary purchase. Stamps have a 10 percent surcharge. Prisoners must pay the state for a 15-minute deathbed visit to an immediate family member or a 15-minute visit to a funeral home to view the deceased. New Jersey, like most other states, forces a prisoner to reimburse the system for overtime wages paid to the two guards who accompany him or her, plus mileage cost. The charge can be as high as $945.04. It can take years to pay off a visit with a dying father or mother.

Fines, often in the thousands of dollars, are assessed against many prisoners when they are sentenced. There are 22 fines that can be imposed in New Jersey, including the Violent Crime Compensation Assessment (VCCB), the Law Enforcement Officers Training & Equipment Fund (LEOT) and Extradition Costs (EXTRA). The state takes a percentage each month out of prison pay to pay down the fines, a process that can take decades. If a prisoner who is fined $10,000 at sentencing must rely solely on a prison salary he or she will owe about $4,000 after making payments for 25 years. Prisoners can leave prison in debt to the state. And if they cannot continue to make regular payments—difficult because of high unemployment—they are sent back to prison. High recidivism is part of the design.

Corporations have privatized most of the prison functions once handled by governments. They run prison commissaries and, since the prisoners have nowhere else to shop, often jack up prices by as much as 100 percent. Corporations have taken over the phone systems and charge exorbitant fees to prisoners and their families. They grossly overcharge for money transfers from families to prisoners. And these corporations, some of the nation’s largest, pay little more than a dollar a day to prison laborers who work in for-profit prison industries. Food and merchandise vendors, construction companies, laundry services, uniforms companies, prison equipment vendors, cafeteria services, manufacturers of pepper spray, body armor and the array of medieval instruments used for the physical control of prisoners, and a host of other contractors feed like jackals off prisons. Prisons, in America, are a hugely profitable business.Our prison-industrial complex, which holds 2.3 million prisoners, or 25 percent of the world’s prison population, makes money by keeping prisons full. It demands bodies, regardless of color, gender or ethnicity. As the system drains the pool of black bodies, it has begun to incarcerate others. Women—the fastest-growing segment of the prison population—are swelling prisons, as are poor whites in general, Hispanics and immigrants. Prisons are no longer a black-white issue. Prisons are a grotesque manifestation of corporate capitalism. Slavery is legal in prisons under the 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. It reads: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States. …” And the massive U.S. prison industry functions like the forced labor camps that have existed in all totalitarian states.

Corporate investors, who have poured billions into the business of mass incarceration, expect long-term returns. And they will get them. It is their lobbyists who write the draconian laws that demand absurdly long sentences, deny paroles, determine immigrant detention laws and impose minimum-sentence and three-strikes-out laws (mandating life sentences after three felony convictions). The politicians and the courts, subservient to corporate power, can be counted on to protect corporate interests.

Corrections Corporation of America (CCA), the largest owner of for-profit prisons and immigration detention facilities in the country, had revenues of $1.7 billion in 2013 and profits of $300 million. CCA holds an average of 81,384 inmates in its facilities on any one day. Aramark Holdings Corp., a Philadelphia-based company that contracts through Aramark Correctional Services to provide food to 600 correctional institutions across the United States, was acquired in 2007 for $8.3 billion by investors that included Goldman Sachs.

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Via TruthDig


4 thoughts on “The Prison State of America

  1. #1 Way to end Mass Incarceration
    By: Dennis Burnett
    The enclosed story comes as advocacy for Criminal Justice Reform. Specifically, the Indictment and Grand Jury process, the process that initiates prosecutions and inevitably leads to mass incarceration. A process hidden in secrecy, which government prosecutors have complete Carte Blanche. Prosecutors power over the Grand Jury ensures that anyone, virtually anywhere, for any reason, can become a target of an indictment. Many lawyers, judges, and scholars have expressed skepticism concerning the prosecutors power over the Grand Jury.
    A Chief Judge (Judge Sol Wachtler) once publicly stated a Grand Jury would indict a “Ham Sandwich” if asked to do so by the prosecutor.

    The Grand Jury goes unchecked by any governmental agency and there is no judge in place to monitor the Grand Jury proceeding. Defense attorneys are not allowed in the Grand Jury room and transcripts are rarely made available to defendants. A defendant has limited ability to challenge or inquire into the propriety of a Grand Jury determinations, even if that determination is based on incompetent, irrelevant, or unconstitutionally obtained evidence. Prosecutors are under no legal duty to present evidence in their possession to the Grand Jury which negates guilt or probable cause.

    The Grand Jury was originally designed as a fair method for instituting criminal charges and to serve as a protector of the people against unfounded criminal prosecutions, a defense against arbitrary and oppressive Government action. Today, this is no longer the case. Prosecutors now use the Grand Jury as a pawn in a technical game to indict, overcharge, and convict. Today’s Federal Grand Juries fail to provide any resistance to the government, and serve as a machine of mass incarceration, government expansion, and caprice. Instead of obstructing and opposing the over-reach of government prosecutors, the secrecy of the Grand Jury provide prosecutors with their cover for misconduct and perjury on a massive scale, and a means to abuse, threaten, and intimidate the American people. Prosecutors now effectively use the Grand Jury as a arm of the prosecution, a social and political weapon, a weapon of mass destruction.

    How can a Grand Jury perform its mission, to clear the innocent and protect the American people against arbitrary and oppressive government action when a prosecutor has no legal duty to present exculpatory evidence i their possession to the Grand Jury? With no system in place to monitor prosecutors, how can the Grand Jury proceeding be considered fair? Prosecutors employ tactics of fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, overcharging, bribery, and terror to obtain indictments and seek convictions. Stopping the growth of the industrial complex and mass incarceration has to start at the root of the problem, not the result. The Grand Jury process needs to be reformed and protections need to be added to limit prosecutor’s power and abuse over the Grand Jury, and to hold them accountable for their actions.

    This letter and story is about exposing the corruption of the Grand Jury to the public and ending mass incarceration. Reforming the Grand Jury will protect the innocent, reduce wrongful convictions, deter overcharging and over-sentencing, and dramatically help end mass incarceration. If a statistical analysis and an investigation into the Grand Jury’s practice and procedures were to take place, Grand Jury Reform would be inevitable.


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